Classification: Vitamin



  • Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) is used to treat vitamin B12 deficiencies.  Deficiencies are most common in individuals with vegan diets (due to lack of B12 acquired in animal products), atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, alcohol abuse, Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, individuals on long term proton-pump inhibitors for GERD, or autoimmune disorders such as Lupus and Graves’ disease. 


Mechanism of Action / Benefits: 

  • Vitamin B12 serves as a cofactor for methionine synthase and L-methylmalonyl-CoA enzymes.  These enzymes are essential for synthesis of purine and pyrimidines that form our DNA, and is also essential for conversion of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is required for fat and protein metabolism.
  • Succinyl-CoA is also necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in our red blood cells to our bodies’ tissues.
  • In tissues, vitamin B12 is required for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine; without sufficient B12, homocysteine levels rise and are hypothesized to be a significant risk factor for cardiac disease and kidney disease. 
  • B12 is particularly important for normal functioning of the nervous system via synthesis of myelin, which are the protective sheaths around our nerve fibers that help speed and conduct nerve impulses.
  • Elevates mood by playing a vital role in synthesis and metabolism of serotonin, a neurotransmitter responsible for regulating mood, and is the same neurotransmitter affected by anti-depressant medications. Also aids in energy production at the cellular level by converting dietary energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the basic form of energy our cells use in a series of complex chemical reactions.   


  • The recommended adult intramuscular dosage is 100mcg once a day for 6 to 7 days until adequate clinical response is seen followed by a maintenance dose of 100 to 1000mcg monthly. 
  • Typical adult dose for B12 nutritional deficiency is 2000mcg monthly. 


Potential Side Effects: 


  • Injection sight reaction (redness, swelling or discomfort)
  • Itching or mild rash